Across the nation many students are returning to school after a year of web-based instruction in the home. Prudent state pandemic prevention policy became school policy with the goal of minimizing the risk of infection, illness and death. Good decisions were made by many state governments and school boards. Many lives were saved.


There’s nothing like a global pandemic and a year in lockdown to bring up questions about the purpose of life. And there is no better framework to ponder than Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to guide an internal conversation and community dialogue.

Abraham Maslow, a psychologist and psychology professor, developed his hierarchy of needs framework through the 1940’s and 1950’s and it has remained very popular within the fields of sociology, psychology and public health.


Adversity, abuse and neglect before, during and after COVID-19.

The hope is that every child is treasured, protected from adversity, abuse, neglect and trauma. The reality is far from that as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), and the related health challenges they can manifest, are far from rare. ACEs were first identified in the groundbreaking Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study by Doctors Felitti and Anda in 1998. ACEs, identified by the authors and researchers in an attempt to understand how childhood experiences impact adult health outcomes, represent ten forms of adversity children endure in the home and include:

  1. Physical abuse
  2. Emotional abuse
  3. Sexual abuse
  4. Physical neglect
  5. Emotional neglect
  6. Living in…

Dominic Cappello

A NY Times bestselling author, social justice activist, Oprah guest, co-author of Attack of the Three-Headed Hydras, 100% Community and Anna, Age Eight.

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